Erbil (Hewlér in Kurdish) is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world. Human settlement at Erbil can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC. The city has witnessed great many empires from the 21st century BC to end of the 7th century AD, among them the Gutian, Assyrian, Median, Achaemenid, Macedonian, Parthian, Sassanaid, and Ottoman Empires respectively.
The citadel overlooks the old Erbil bazaar with a variety of authentic shops and eateries. The Citadel is also a few minutes’ walk from the Shanadar Park and the Shanadar cave where Neanderthal remnants were discovered.